Percutaneous Spinal Fixation Simulation With Virtual Reality Haptics
63 neurosurgery fellows and residents were given five minutes to practice performing a percutaneous needle placement procedure on the ImmersiveTouch simulator. Pre-defined entry and target points were given, and participants were able to use fluoroscopic guidance as they practiced. Then during the test phase, each participant was asked to complete the percutaneous needle placement procedure twice, again with fluoroscopy. Performance data was measured based on two parameters: average Euclidean distance between the needle trajectory and the predefined entry and target points, and the duration of fluoroscopic exposure.
Results showed that from 126 needle placements, the average distance, average fluoroscopy exposure, and average overall score of the participants improved from the first attempt to the second; average distance decreased from 15.69 mm to 13.91 mm, average fluoroscopy exposure decreased from 4.6 s to 3.92 s, and the average performance score decreased from 32.39 to 30.71. Additionally, the accuracy of spinal needle placements achieved by the participants in this study was comparable to the accuracy reported in retroactive evaluations of the same placements.
“Having demonstrated similar efficacy in prior work on ventriculostomy and pedicle screw simulations, ImmersiveTouch continues to evolve as a versatile training tool that can be adapted to a variety of situations as needed.”
Luciano, C.J.; Banerjee P.P.; Sorenson, J.M., et al. Percutaneous Spinal Fixation Simulation with Virtual Reality and Haptics. Neurosurgery. 2012; 0:1-8.